Articulation / Phonology

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Articulation/Phonology

Articulation-Phonology

Articulation

Articulation is how a sound is made using accurate and coordinated movement of the jaw, lips, tongue, teeth, and soft palate. Articulation is also impacted by voice, the ability to use breath and contraction of the vocal folds to create sound, and fluency, the rhythm and flow of speech. Phonology refers to the patterns of sound production, and phonological disorders refer to simplification strategies that children use to make speech production easier.

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Phonology

Phonology refers to the patterns of sound production, and phonological disorders refer to simplification strategies that children use to make speech production easier. For example, if a child produces ‘toot’ for ‘cook’ or ‘dum’ for ‘gum’, he/she is ‘fronting’ the sound. The phonological process of ‘fronting’ means that the child is consistently substituting a ‘back sound’ (sound is produced in the back of the mouth) with a ‘front sound’ (sound is produced in the front of the mouth). Phonological processing errors can contribute greatly to reduced intelligibility of speech if not corrected by a developmentally appropriate age.

Contact our office for more information on phonology or to schedule a free screening!

Milestones

​Birth – 3 Months

Makes reflexive sounds (e.g. crying, vocalizing to internal stimuli)

4 – 6 Months

Coos; laughs; engages in vocal play

6 – 12 Months

By 9 months babbles reduplicated syllables (e.g. “yayaya, dadada”); babbles/uses jargon with inflection, by 12 months produces variegated babbling (e.g. “yadata badoteeda”)

12 – 18 Months

Speech is 25-50% intelligible to listeners; produces primarily Consonant-Vowel (CV) syllable shapes (e.g. “ba/bottle, da/dog”); frequently uses reduplication (e.g. “baba”), syllable deletion (e.g. “nana” for “banana”), assimilation (e.g. “guck” for “duck”), and final consonant deletion (e.g. “pih” for “pig”)

18 – 2 Years

Speech is 50% intelligible to listeners; 70% of consonants are correct; begins to use CVC syllable shapes (e.g. “dog, cat, hop”) and two-syllable words

2 – 3 Years

Speech is 50-75% intelligible to listeners; produces sounds /p, b, m, k, g, f, w, h/ by age 3; produces all vowels correctly

3 – 4 Years

Produces sounds /sh, ch, v/ by age 4; suppresses the use of reduplication, syllable deletion, assimilation, final consonant deletion, velar fronting (e.g. “tat” for “cat”), prevocalic voicing (e.g. “ben” for “pen”), deaffrication (e.g. “sew” for “chew”), and cluster reduction excluding “s” (e.g. “boo” for “blue”)

4 – 5 Years

Speech is 75-90% intelligible to listeners; produces sounds /l, th, s, z/ by age 5; suppresses the use of depalatalization (e.g. “too” for “shoe”), final consonant devoicing (e.g. “pick” for “pig”), cluster reduction with “s” (e.g. “top” for “stop”)

5 – 6 Years

Speech is 90-100% intelligible to listeners; suppresses gliding of liquids (e.g. substituting “w” or “y” for “l” and/or “r”)

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